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Glossary

AHRC – Arts and Humanities Research Council.

Article Processing Charge (APC) – An APC is a publisher’s fee for covering the publishing costs such as those associated with the editorial and peer-review processes. A consequence of payment of an APC is Gold Open Access to the research paper.

Author Accepted Manuscript (AAM) - The author’s final, accepted manuscript is the one that has been agreed with the editor at that point. The accepted manuscript is not the same as the copy-edited, typeset or published paper – these versions are known as ‘proofs’ or ‘versions of record’.

Author self-archiving – Author self-archiving refers to a researcher placing a copy of their own scholarly work in a digital repository.

CC-BY – As long as the author is attributed, the Creative Commons Attribution Licence allows anyone to copy, distribute, display and make derivative works.

CC-BY-NC – As long as the author is attributed, the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Licence allows anyone to copy, distribute, display and make derivative works, but not for commercial purposes.

Charity Open Access Fund (COAF) - a pilot partnership between a number of medical charities: Arthritis Research UK, Bloodwise, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, The Wellcome Trust.

COAF - see Charity Open Access Fund.

Creative Commons - Creative Commons contains a number of copyright licences which allow creators to control how their work is used and state which copyright rights they wish to reserve and which they are willing to waive. Information regarding the different licences is available on the CC Website.

Discipline-specific repository – A repository containing work from a particular discipline, bringing together research from multiple institutions and funders. Some discipline-specific repositories are very broad in scope - for example National Institutes of Health's PubMed Central covers all of biology and medicine, and ArXiv covers all of physics. Many other repositories cover more specialist areas, ranging from CogPrints (cognitive science and psychology) to Antbase (ant taxonomy).

Embargo – An embargo, in academic publishing terms, is a period during which access to scholarly work is restricted to those who have paid for access. The purpose of this is usually to protect the revenue of the publisher

ESRC – Economic and Social Research Council.

Finch Report – In 2011 a Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings (the Finch Group) was set up by the government to examine how publicly funded scholarly work could be made more accessible. The Finch Group published their report (the Finch Report) in June 2012.

Gold Open Access – Publishers make research papers immediately freely available in peer-reviewed journals, and may apply an Article Processing Charge.

Green Open Access – The author makes a version of a peer-reviewed, published work freely available via an institutional or discipline-specific repository.  Publishers stipulate the version of manuscript that can be self-archived and the length of embargo period following publication before the paper is made Open Access. 

HEFCE – Higher Education Funding Council for England.

Hybrid journal – A journal in which some articles are freely available (after the author has paid an additional fee to make Open Access possible), while other articles within the journal are only accessible by subscription to the journal or payment to read individual articles.

Institutional repository – A repository contains an institution’s scholarly output. The work can include publications in peer-reviewed journals, books and book-sections, technical reports, working papers, monographs, conference presentations, audio and visual materials or any other research content that has some scholarly value. A repository can provide figures showing research productivity and act as a record of an institution’s intellectual assets. Universities are increasingly setting up their own institutional repositories. The University of Manchester’s institutional repository is Manchester eScholar.

Licence – A statement from a copyright holder telling users what they may and may not do with a copyrighted work. By default, a copyrighted work is under an all-rights-reserved copyright and users may not exceed fair use.

Manchester eScholar (colloquially known as 'eScholar') – Manchester eScholar is the institutional repository of the University of Manchester.

MRC – Medical Research Council.

Open Access – The term Open Access refers to the online availability of scholarly work via the public Internet, free of charge to individuals who wish to access and read it.

Open Access journal – Online scholarly journals freely available to readers without any financial barriers.

Pre-print – A first draft of an article, before peer-review, possibly even before any contact with a publisher.

Published article – The peer-reviewed article that has been formatted by the publisher ready for publishing. Probably saved as a publisher-generated pdf file.  Also known as the publisher’s version.

RCUK – Research Councils UK

REF – The Research Excellence Framework is the system by which HEFCE assess research quality at UK research focused higher education institutions. REF replaced the previous Research Assessment Exercise (RAE).

Repository – A system for storing digital copies of scholarly work. Repositories do not perform peer-review but can host work peer-reviewed elsewhere. A repository can make the materials freely and easily accessible.

Research Councils UK (RCUK) Open Access Block Grant – Funds released by RCUK to help institutions comply with the RCUK Open Access policy.

Scholarly Communication Service (The University of Manchester Library)  – This service provides assistance in the publication and promotion of your research, including guidance on Open Access publishing.

Self-archiving – The process of depositing your scholarly work into a repository. You may be able to carry out this process yourself using an online interface to the repository or you may provide your work to an administrator who will carry out the deposit on your behalf. In both cases you will be required to grant permissions regarding access and reuse of your work.

SHERPA/FACT – SHERPA/FACT (SHERPA Funders’ & Authors’ Compliance Tool) provides guidance on whether an author's chosen journal complies with their funder's Open Access (OA) policy. This tool currently supports RCUK and the COAF medical charities. 

SHERPA/RoMEO – This service hosts information about publishers’ Open Access policies and funder requirements.

Toll access – Access limited to those who pay. The most generic term for the opposite of Open Access.

Version of Record - The published version of an article. Probably saved as a publisher-generated pdf file.  Also known as the publisher’s version.

Wellcome Trust – A global charitable foundation dedicated to achieving improvements in human and animal health. The Wellcome Trust is now part of the COAF partnership. 

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